Scorpion venom

sympathetic and parasympathetic

About scorpion venom

The deathstalker scorpion is one of the deadliest scorpions in the world. Its tail is full of powerful venom. A deathstalker scorpion’s sting is extremely painful and also causes paralysis, an inability to move or feel part of the body.About scorpion venom The scorpion uses this venom to hunt insects such as crickets, which are its main food source.

Scorpion Photograph By Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Victims of envenoming by a scorpion suffer a variety of pathologies, involving mainly both sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation as well as central manifestations such as irritability, hyperthermia, vomiting, profuse salivation, tremor, and convulsion. The clinical signs and symptoms observed in humans and experimental animals are related with an excessive systemic host inflammatory response to stings and stings, respectively. Although the pathophysiology of envenomation is complex and not yet fully understood, venom and immune responses are known to trigger the release of inflammatory mediators that are largely mediated by cytokines.

About scorpion venom

It has been reported that scorpion venom causes respiratory failure and pulmonary edema. However, the effects of this toxin on lung edema clearance have not been previously studied. We examined the effects of scorpion (Tityus serrulatus) venom on the ability of the lung to clear fluid and on alveolar epithelial Na,K-ATPase.About scorpion venom The wet-to-dry lung weight ratio was increased in anesthetized rats injected intraperitonally with scorpion venom. Lung edema clearance decreased by up to approximately 60% in rats injected with the venom. تصویر مرتبط Na,K-ATPase α1– and β1-subunit protein abundance and activity decreased at the basolateral membranes of alveolar epithelial type II cells incubated with scorpion venom as compared with that of control animals. There was no difference in cell injury in alveolar epithelial type II cells incubated with scorpion venom for 60 minutes compared with that of control animals. We provide here the first evidence that scorpion venom decreases lung liquid clearance, probably by downregulating Na,K-ATPase in the alveolar epithelium.

About scorpion venom

scorpions use their sting for a variety of purposes. The most obvious use of the sting is in prey capture. Prey is first grasped firmly with the pincers.About scorpion venom For many scorpions, nothing more is required to subdue the prey for external digestion. Prey that cannot be killed by simply crushing with the pincers is usually stung one or more times. Related image Scorpion uses its venom for both prey capture and defense. The venom is constituted by mucopolysaccharides, hyaluronidase, phospholipase, serotonin, histamine, enzyme inhibitors, and proteins namely neurotoxic peptid The signs of the scorpion envenomation are determined by the symptoms presented by victims of scorpion envenomation are usually complex in nature and can be attributed mainly to hyperactivity of the autonomic nervous system . The venom contain neurotoxic peptides which are responsible for the symptoms that present during envenomation by interacting with ion channels and have the potential to cause massive damage to nervous system of both vertebrates and invertebrates. .

About scorpion venom

Some components in scorpion venom appear to have no other function than to cause localized pain or discomfort in the victim. By analogy with bees, which use their venom defensively,About scorpion venom these components are hypothesized to have evolved as defensive secretions. Like honey bees, the venom of some scorpions has been found to contain phospholipase A, an enzyme, and histamine, which dilates blood vessels. Related image Serotonin, which causes constriction of blood vessels in mammals, is also produced by some scorpions and has been suggested as a pain-producing compound (seratonin in insects increases muscle excitation). Other researchers have found that serotonin in the scorpion’s venom induces uterine contractions and causes spontaneous abortions in rats. They suggest that serotonin is responsible for spontaneous abortions in women who are stung by scorpions in their first trimester.

About scorpion venom

Scorpions are nocturnal animals that live in tropical areas and deserts. They find shelter during the day in underground holes, beneath rocks and in burrows.About scorpion venom At night, they venture out to hunt for food.About scorpion venom Their primary predators are birds, centipedes, lizards, mice, possums and rats. تصویر مرتبط

About scorpion venom

one undeniable fact is that scorpions are venomous. Their venom is the cause of widespread fear and at the same time, fascination. Most species possess a sting comparable to that of a bee sting, but a few scorpion species have a venomous sting that can be lethal to humans.

 

About scorpion venom

Though many scorpions can go for long periods of time without eating, overfeeding can cause an overly swollen stomach as well as the loss of appetite, and even death. The stomach can be slightly swollen from regular eating, and this is not a problem.

About scorpion venom

Another problem can be an infestation of Mites. Uneaten food can attract mites, which are very dangerous and stressful to scorpions. Be sure to remove old food.though many scorpions can go for long periods of time without eating, overfeeding can cause an overly swollen stomach as well as the loss of appetite, and even death. The stomach can be slightly swollen from regular eating, and this is not a problem. Another problem can be an infestation of Mites. Uneaten food can attract mites, which are very dangerous and stressful to scorpions. Be sure to remove old food.

About scorpion venom

Though many scorpions can go for long periods of time without eating, overfeeding can cause an overly swollen stomach as well as the loss of appetite, and even death. The stomach can be slightly swollen from regular eating, and this is not a problem. Another problem can be an infestation of Mites. Uneaten food can attract mites, which are very dangerous and stressful to scorpions. Be sure to remove old food. Image result for Heterometrus

About scorpion venom

Another problem can be an infestation of Mites. Uneaten food can attract mites, which are very dangerous and stressful to scorpions. Be sure to remove old food.Availability Malaysian Forest Scorpions are found in large numbers in nature and are thus imported in large numbers. These black scorpions are commonly available as wild-caught specimens from a lot of invertebrate and reptile dealers. Unfortunately to date they have only been produced in captivity a few times. Scorpion venom Scorpion venom Scorpion venom Scorpion venom

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